Prevalence, antimicrobial resistance and risk factors for campylobacteriosis in Lebanon
Introduction: The rapid increase in Campylobacter strains resistant to antibiotics represents a major problem for public health. In Lebanon, campylobacteriosis is underdiagnosed since bacteria detection in stool samples is not performed routinely. This study aims to evaluate the prevalence, sources and routes of transmission, risk factors and antimicrobial susceptibility patterns of Campylobacter spp. in Lebanon.
Methodology: Stool samples collected from 1000 Lebanese patients with diarrhea, and 150 meat samples taken from supermarkets and slaughterhouses were subjected to Campylobacter detection. Colonies were identified by Gram staining, oxidase and catalase activities. They were then differentiated at the species level by hippurate test and PCR. Susceptibility of Campylobacter spp. to antibiotics was studied by the disc diffusion standard method.
Results: Campylobacter spp. were detected in 21.5% of stool samples; the main isolated species being C. jejuni (83.2%) and C. coli (13.9%). The highest Campylobacter infection rates were detected among children (41.8%) and during summer (31.6%). Consumption of contaminated meat and salads, and contact with animals represented the major risk factors for campylobacteriosis, with poultry carcasses and bovine cuts identified as the main bacteria reservoirs. Neither demographic determinants nor season had a major effect on the prevalence of campylobacteriosis. Erythromycin was the most active agent against Campylobacter spp. A multi-resistance rate was observed in 35.9% of isolates.
Conclusions: Campylobacteriosis is a major public health concern in Lebanon. Bacteria detection in stool culture should be performed routinely to allow an early diagnosis and a better monitoring of the disease and its burden.
Copyright (c) 2019 Jose Noel Ibrahim, Elias Eghnatios, Ali El Roz, Taher Fardoun, Ghassan Ghssein
This work is licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution 4.0 International License.
Authors who publish with this journal agree to the following terms:
- Authors retain copyright and grant the journal right of first publication with the work simultaneously licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution License that allows others to share the work with an acknowledgement of the work's authorship and initial publication in this journal.
- Authors are able to enter into separate, additional contractual arrangements for the non-exclusive distribution of the journal's published version of the work (e.g., post it to an institutional repository or publish it in a book), with an acknowledgement of its initial publication in this journal.
- Authors are permitted and encouraged to post their work online (e.g., in institutional repositories or on their website) prior to and during the submission process, as it can lead to productive exchanges, as well as earlier and greater citation of published work (See The Effect of Open Access).