Presence of virulence factors and antibiotic resistance among Escherichia coli strains isolated from human pit sludge
Introduction: In Bangladesh, human sludge from dry pit latrines is commonly applied directly to agricultural lands as manure. This study was conducted to investigate the presence of antibiotic resistance, virulence factors and plasmid contents of E. coli strains isolated from sludge samples.
Methodology: E. coli were isolated from human feces from closed pit latrines and identified by culture method. Antibiotic susceptibility patterns of the isolates were determined by Standard Kirby-Bauer disk diffusion method. Pathogenic genes and antibiotic resistance genes of ESBL producing isolates were determined by PCR assay.
Results: Of the 34 samples tested, 76.5% contained E. coli. Of 72 E. coli isolates, 76.4% were resistant to at least one of the 12 antibiotics tested and 47.2% isolates were resistant to three or four classes of antibiotics. Around 18% isolates were extended spectrum β- lactamase producing and of them 6 were positive for blaTEM specific gene, 4 for blaCTX-M gene, 1 for blaOXA gene and 2 for both blaTEM and blaCTX-M genes. Moreover, among 72 isolates, 4.2% carried virulence genes of enterotoxigenic E. coli; two isolates were positive for st and one was positive for both st and lt genes. In addition, 59.7% of the isolates contained plasmids (range 1.4 to 140 MDa) of which 19.5% isolates contained a single plasmid and 40.2% contained multiple plasmids.
Conclusions: The presence of pathogenic, drug resistant E. coli in human sludge necessitates a regular surveillance before using as a biofertilizer.
Copyright (c) 2019 Zahid Hayat Mahmud, Farozaan Fatima Shirazi, Muhammad Riadul Haque Hossainey, Mohammad Imtiazul Islam, Mir Alvee Ahmed, Tanvir Noor Nafiz, Khan Mohammad Imran, Jinath Sultana, Md Shafiqul Islam, Mohammad Aminul Islam, Md Sirajul Islam
This work is licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution 4.0 International License.
Authors who publish with this journal agree to the following terms:
- Authors retain copyright and grant the journal right of first publication with the work simultaneously licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution License that allows others to share the work with an acknowledgement of the work's authorship and initial publication in this journal.
- Authors are able to enter into separate, additional contractual arrangements for the non-exclusive distribution of the journal's published version of the work (e.g., post it to an institutional repository or publish it in a book), with an acknowledgement of its initial publication in this journal.
- Authors are permitted and encouraged to post their work online (e.g., in institutional repositories or on their website) prior to and during the submission process, as it can lead to productive exchanges, as well as earlier and greater citation of published work (See The Effect of Open Access).