Epidemiology of typhoid and paratyphoid fever in India
Keywords: Typhoid, multidrug resistance, Salmonella Typhi and Paratyphi, antimicrobials, vaccination
AbstractEnteric fever (typhoid and paratyphoid fever) is a major human bacterial infection. Although the disease is not common in industrialised countries, it remains an important and persistent health problem in developing nations. Hospital-based studies and outbreak reports from India indicate that enteric fever is a major public health problem in this country, with Salmonella enterica serovar Typhi (S. Typhi) the most common aetiologic agent but with an apparently increasing number of cases due to S. Paratyphi A (SPA). Because risk factors such as poor sanitation, lack of a safe drinking water supply and low socio economic conditions in resource-poor countries are amplified by the evolution of multidrug resistant salmonellae with reduced susceptibility to fluoroquinolone, treatment failure cases have been reported in India, which is associated with increased mortality and morbidity. Vaccination, which requires strict planning and proper targeting of the vulnerable age groups, is considered to be an effective tool in controlling this disease in endemic areas, given there is development of a conjugate vaccine against both serovars (S. Typhi and S. Para A).
How to Cite
Kanungo S, Dutta S, Sur D (2008) Epidemiology of typhoid and paratyphoid fever in India. J Infect Dev Ctries 2:454-460. doi: 10.3855/jidc.161
Authors who publish with this journal agree to the following terms:
- Authors retain copyright and grant the journal right of first publication with the work simultaneously licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution License that allows others to share the work with an acknowledgement of the work's authorship and initial publication in this journal.
- Authors are able to enter into separate, additional contractual arrangements for the non-exclusive distribution of the journal's published version of the work (e.g., post it to an institutional repository or publish it in a book), with an acknowledgement of its initial publication in this journal.
- Authors are permitted and encouraged to post their work online (e.g., in institutional repositories or on their website) prior to and during the submission process, as it can lead to productive exchanges, as well as earlier and greater citation of published work (See The Effect of Open Access).