Multidrug-Resistant and Extensively Drug Resistant Tuberculosis in Kashmir, India
Background: To study the profile of multidrug-resistant tuberculosis (MDR-TB) and extensively drug-resistant tuberculosis (XDR-TB) in tertiary care hospital setting, representing almost the whole affected population in Kashmir valley of India.
Methodology: A total of 910 cases of pulmonary tuberculosis were enrolled over four years. Among these, cases of MDR-TB and XDR-TB were meticulously studied for drug susceptibility, treatment, adverse effects profile and overall survival.
Results: Fifty-two (5.7%) cases of MDR-TB were identified, among which eight (15.3%) were diagnosed as XDR-TB on the basis of drug susceptibility testing, using the prescribed definition. The cases were sensitive to 2, 3, 4, 5 and more than 5 drugs in almost equal proportions. Thirty-seven (71.1%) cases were successfully cured; eleven (21.1%) patients died; and only four (7.6%) cases defaulted, indicating overall satisfactory adherence to treatment.
Conclusion: For effective treatment of MDR-TB and XDR-TB, early case detection, improved laboratory facilities, availability of appropriate treatment regimens, and financial assistance in resource-limited settings through effective political intervention are necessary for better patient adherence and overall cure.
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