Pathogenesis of Hendra and Nipah virus infection in humans

  • Olivier Escaffre University of Texas Medical Branch, Galveston, Texas, USA
  • Viktoriya Borisevich University of Texas Medical Branch, Galveston, Texas, USA
  • Barry Rockx University of Texas Medical Branch, Galveston, Texas, USA
Keywords: Hendra, Nipah, zoonotic, pathogenesis, respiratory tract, central nervous system

Abstract

Hendra virus (HeV) and Nipah virus (NiV) are emerging zoonotic viruses that cause severe and often lethal respiratory illness and encephalitis in humans. Henipaviruses can infect a wide range of species and human-to-human transmission has been observed for NiV. While the exact route of transmission in humans is not known, experimental infection in different animal species suggests that infection can be efficiently initiated after respiratory challenge. The limited data on histopathological changes in fatal human cases of HeV and NiV suggest that endothelial cells are an important target during the terminal stage of infection; however, it is unknown where these viruses initially establish infection and how the virus disseminates from the respiratory tract to the central nervous system and other organs. Here we review the current concepts in henipavirus pathogenesis in humans.

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Published
2013-04-17
How to Cite
1.
Escaffre O, Borisevich V, Rockx B (2013) Pathogenesis of Hendra and Nipah virus infection in humans. J Infect Dev Ctries 7:308-311. doi: 10.3855/jidc.3648
Section
Reviews