Molecular epidemiology of HIV, HBV, HCV, and HTLV-1/2 in drug abuser inmates in central Javan prisons, Indonesia

  • Afiono Agung Prasetyo Faculty of Medicine, Sebelas Maret University, Jl. Ir. Sutami 36A, Surakarta, Indonesia
  • Paramasari Dirgahayu Faculty of Medicine, Sebelas Maret University, Jl. Ir. Sutami 36A, Surakarta, Indonesia
  • Yulia Sari Faculty of Medicine, Sebelas Maret University, Jl. Ir. Sutami 36A, Surakarta, Indonesia
  • Hudiyono Hudiyono Faculty of Medicine, Sebelas Maret University, Jl. Ir. Sutami 36A, Surakarta, Indonesia
  • Seiji Kageyama Faculty of Medicine, Tottori University, 86 Nishi cho Yonago, Japan
Keywords: HIV, HBV, HCV, HDV, HTLV-1/2, drug abuser inmates

Abstract

Introduction: This study was conducted to determine the current molecular prevalence of human immunodeficiency virus (HIV), hepatitis B virus (HBV), hepatitis C virus (HCV), hepatitis D virus (HDV), and human T lymphotropic virus-1/2 (HTLV-1/2) circulating among drug abuser inmates incarcerated in prisons located in Central Java, Indonesia.

Methodology: Socio-epidemiological data and blood specimens were collected from 375 drug abuser inmates in four prisons. The blood samples were analyzed with serological and molecular testing for HIV, HBV, HCV, HDV, and HTLV-1/2.

Results: The seroprevalence of HIV, HBsAg, HCV, HDV, and HTLV-1/2 in drug abuser inmates was 4.8% (18/375), 3.2% (12/375), 34.1% (128/375), 0% (0/375), and 3.7% (14/375), respectively. No co-infections of HIV and HBV were found. Co-infections of HIV/HCV, HIV/HTLV-1/2, HBV/HCV, HBV/HTLV-1/2, and HCV/HTLV-1/2 were prevalent at rates of 4% (15/375), 1.3% (5/375), 1.1% (4/375), 0.3% (1/375), and 2.1% (8/375), respectively. The HIV/HCV co-infection rate was significantly higher in injection drug users (IDUs) compared to non-IDUs. Triple co-infection of HIV/HCV/HTLV-1/2 was found only in three IDUs (0.8%). HIV CRF01_AE was found to be circulating in the inmates. HBV genotype B3 predominated, followed by C1. Subtypes adw and adr were found. HCV genotype 1a predominated among HCV-infected inmates, followed by 1c, 3k, 3a, 4a, and 1b. All HTLV-1 isolates shared 100% homology with HTLV-1 isolated in Japan, while all of the HTLV-2 isolates were subtype 2a.

Conclusion: Drug abuser inmates in prisons may offer a unique community to bridge prevention and control of human blood-borne virus infection to the general community.

Author Biographies

Afiono Agung Prasetyo, Faculty of Medicine, Sebelas Maret University, Jl. Ir. Sutami 36A, Surakarta, Indonesia

Principal Investigator of Blood Borne Virus Research Group in Department of Microbiology Faculty of Medicine, Sebelas Maret University, Indonesia.

Principal Investigator of Blood Borne Virus Research Group and Head of Virology Division in Biomedical Laboratory Faculty of Medicine, Sebelas Maret University, Indonesia.

Secretary of Center of Biotechnology and Biodiversity Research and Development, Sebelas Maret University, Indonesia.

Paramasari Dirgahayu, Faculty of Medicine, Sebelas Maret University, Jl. Ir. Sutami 36A, Surakarta, Indonesia

Biomedical Laboratory Faculty of Medicine, Sebelas Maret University, Indonesia.

Center of Biotechnology and Biodiversity Research and Development, Sebelas Maret University, Indonesia.

Department of Parasitology Faculty of Medicine, Sebelas Maret University, Indonesia.

Yulia Sari, Faculty of Medicine, Sebelas Maret University, Jl. Ir. Sutami 36A, Surakarta, Indonesia

Biomedical Laboratory Faculty of Medicine, Sebelas Maret University, Indonesia.

Center of Biotechnology and Biodiversity Research and Development, Sebelas Maret University, Indonesia.

Department of Parasitology Faculty of Medicine, Sebelas Maret University, Indonesia.

Hudiyono Hudiyono, Faculty of Medicine, Sebelas Maret University, Jl. Ir. Sutami 36A, Surakarta, Indonesia

Department of Microbiology Faculty of Medicine, Sebelas Maret University, Indonesia.

Center of Biotechnology and Biodiversity Research and Development, Sebelas Maret University, Indonesia.

Seiji Kageyama, Faculty of Medicine, Tottori University, 86 Nishi cho Yonago, Japan

Professor

Department of Microbiology and Immunology (Division of Virology) Faculty of Medicine, Tottori University, Japan.

Published
2013-06-15
How to Cite
1.
Prasetyo AA, Dirgahayu P, Sari Y, Hudiyono H, Kageyama S (2013) Molecular epidemiology of HIV, HBV, HCV, and HTLV-1/2 in drug abuser inmates in central Javan prisons, Indonesia. J Infect Dev Ctries 7:453-467. doi: 10.3855/jidc.2965
Section
Original Articles