Preponderance of bacterial isolates in urine of HIV-positive malaria-infected pregnant women with urinary tract infection

  • Kwashie Ajibade Ako-Nai Faculty of Science, Obafemi Awolowo University, Ile-Ife, Osun State, Nigeria
  • Blessing Itohan Ebhodaghe Faculty of Science, Obafemi Awolowo University, Ile-Ife, Osun State, Nigeria
  • Patrick Osho State Specialist Hospital Akure, Ondo State, Nigeria
  • Ebun Adejuyigbe College of Health Sciences, Obafemi Awolowo University, Ile-Ife, Osun State, Nigeria
  • Folasade Mubiat Adeyemi Faculty of Basic and Applied Sciences, College of Science, Engineering and Technology, Osun State University, Osogbo, Nigeria
  • Olakunle Kassim Howard University College of Medicine, Washington DC, United States
Keywords: HIV and malaria co-infection, bacteria, antibiotic resistance, UTI

Abstract

Introduction: This study examined HIV and malaria co-infection as a risk factor for urinary tract infections (UTIs) in pregnancy. The study group included 74 pregnant women, 20 to 42 years of age, who attended the antenatal clinic at the Specialist Hospital at Akure, Ondo State, Nigeria.

Methodology: Forty-four of the pregnant women were either HIV seropositive with malaria infection (HIV+Mal+) or HIV seropositive without malaria (HIV+Mal-). The remaining thirty pregnant women served as controls and included women HIV seronegative but with malaria (HIV-Mal+) and women HIV seronegative without malaria. UTI was indicated by a bacterial colony count of greater than 105/mL of urine, using cysteine lactose electrolyte deficient medium (CLED) as the primary isolation medium. Bacterial isolates were characterized using convectional bacteriological methods, and antibiotics sensitivity tests were carried out using the disk diffusion method.

Results: A total of 246 bacterial isolates were recovered from the cultures, with a mean of 3.53 isolates per subject. Women who were HIV+Mal+ had the most diverse group of bacterial isolates and the highest frequency of UTIs. The bacterial isolates from the HIV+Mal+ women also showed the highest degree of antibiotic resistance.

Conclusions: While pregnancy and HIV infection may each represent a risk factor for UTI, HIV and malaria co-infection may increase its frequency in pregnancy. The higher frequency of multiple antibiotic resistance observed among the isolates, particularly isolates from HIV+Mal+ subjects, poses a serious public health concern as these strains may aggravate the prognosis of both UTI and HIV infection.

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Author Biographies

Kwashie Ajibade Ako-Nai, Faculty of Science, Obafemi Awolowo University, Ile-Ife, Osun State, Nigeria
Department of Microbiology, Professor
Blessing Itohan Ebhodaghe, Faculty of Science, Obafemi Awolowo University, Ile-Ife, Osun State, Nigeria
Department of Microbiology, Post graduate
Patrick Osho, State Specialist Hospital Akure, Ondo State, Nigeria
Department of Haematology, Consultant Haematologist
Ebun Adejuyigbe, College of Health Sciences, Obafemi Awolowo University, Ile-Ife, Osun State, Nigeria
Department of Paediatrics and Child Health, Consultant paediatrician,Professor
Folasade Mubiat Adeyemi, Faculty of Basic and Applied Sciences, College of Science, Engineering and Technology, Osun State University, Osogbo, Nigeria
Department of Biological Sciences, Post graduate
Olakunle Kassim, Howard University College of Medicine, Washington DC, United States
Department of Microbiology, College of Medicine, Washington DC, Professor
Published
2014-12-15
How to Cite
1.
Ako-NaiKA, Ebhodaghe BI, Osho P, Adejuyigbe E, Adeyemi FM, Kassim O (2014) Preponderance of bacterial isolates in urine of HIV-positive malaria-infected pregnant women with urinary tract infection. J Infect Dev Ctries 8:1591-1600. doi: 10.3855/jidc.4854
Section
Original Articles