Multidrug-resistant tuberculosis and risk factors associated with its development: a retrospective study
Introduction: Multidrug-resistant tuberculosis (MDR-TB) has emerged as a major clinical public health threat and challenges the national TB control program in Malaysia. Data that elaborates on the risk factors associated with the development of MDR-TB is highly limited in this country. This study was aimed to determine the risk factors associated with the development of MDR-TB patients in peninsular Malaysia.
Methodology: This was a case control study; the data were collected from medical records of all the registered MDR-TB patients at five referral TB hospitals in peninsular Malaysia from January 2010 to April 2014. The 105 cases were all confirmed by a positive sputum culture of Mycobacterium tuberculosis for MDR-TB and extensively drug-resistant (XDR)-TB. As a comparison, a total of 209 non-MDR-TB cases were randomly selected as controls.
Results: A total of 105 MDR-TB and 209 non MDR-TB patients were studied. The risk factors associated with MDR-TB within the multivariate analysis were previous tuberculosis treatment, HIV infection, being an immigrant, and high load of positive for acid-fast bacillus (AFB) smear.
Conclusions: The findings of this study revealed that patients who had received previous treatment for tuberculosis, were infected with HIV, were immigrants, and had a high burden of positive testing for AFB smear were more likely to have MDR-TB. An enhanced understanding of the risk factors associated with MDR-TB strains is imperative in the development of a national policy for public health interventions.
Authors who publish with this journal agree to the following terms:
- Authors retain copyright and grant the journal right of first publication with the work simultaneously licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution License that allows others to share the work with an acknowledgement of the work's authorship and initial publication in this journal.
- Authors are able to enter into separate, additional contractual arrangements for the non-exclusive distribution of the journal's published version of the work (e.g., post it to an institutional repository or publish it in a book), with an acknowledgement of its initial publication in this journal.
- Authors are permitted and encouraged to post their work online (e.g., in institutional repositories or on their website) prior to and during the submission process, as it can lead to productive exchanges, as well as earlier and greater citation of published work (See The Effect of Open Access).