Multidrug-resistant tuberculosis and risk factors associated with its development: a retrospective study

  • Omar Sald Elmi School of Medical Sciences, Universiti Sains Malaysia, Health Campus, Kubang Kerian, Kelantan, Malaysia
  • Habsah Hasan School of Medical Sciences, Universiti Sains Malaysia, Health Campus, Kubang Kerian, Kelantan, Malaysia
  • Sarimah Abdullah School of Medical Sciences, Universiti Sains Malaysia, Health Campus, Kubang Kerian, Kelantan, Malaysia
  • Mat Zuki Mat Jeab Hospital Raja Perempuan Zainab II Kota Bharu, Kelantan, Malaysia
  • Zilfalil Bin Alwi School of Medical Sciences, Universiti Sains Malaysia, Health Campus, Kubang Kerian, Kelantan, Malaysia
  • Nyi Nyi Naing School of Medical Sciences, Universiti Sains Malaysia, Health Campus, Kubang Kerian, Kelantan, Malaysia
Keywords: risk factors, tuberculosis, multidrug-resistant and extensively drug-resistant tuberculosis, Malaysia

Abstract

Introduction: Multidrug-resistant tuberculosis (MDR-TB) has emerged as a major clinical public health threat and challenges the national TB control program in Malaysia. Data that elaborates on the risk factors associated with the development of MDR-TB is highly limited in this country. This study was aimed to determine the risk factors associated with the development of MDR-TB patients in peninsular Malaysia.

Methodology: This was a case control study; the data were collected from medical records of all the registered MDR-TB patients at five referral TB hospitals in peninsular Malaysia from January 2010 to April 2014. The 105 cases were all confirmed by a positive sputum culture of Mycobacterium tuberculosis for MDR-TB and extensively drug-resistant (XDR)-TB. As a comparison, a total of 209 non-MDR-TB cases were randomly selected as controls.

Results: A total of 105 MDR-TB and 209 non MDR-TB patients were studied. The risk factors associated with MDR-TB within the multivariate analysis were previous tuberculosis treatment, HIV infection, being an immigrant, and high load of positive for acid-fast bacillus (AFB) smear.

Conclusions: The findings of this study revealed that patients who had received previous treatment for tuberculosis, were infected with HIV, were immigrants, and had a high burden of positive testing for AFB smear were more likely to have MDR-TB. An enhanced understanding of the risk factors associated with MDR-TB strains is imperative in the development of a national policy for public health interventions.

Author Biographies

Omar Sald Elmi, School of Medical Sciences, Universiti Sains Malaysia, Health Campus, Kubang Kerian, Kelantan, Malaysia
Unit of Biostatistics and Research Methodology
Habsah Hasan, School of Medical Sciences, Universiti Sains Malaysia, Health Campus, Kubang Kerian, Kelantan, Malaysia
Department of Medical Microbiology and Parasitology, School of Medical Sciences, Universiti Sains Malaysia, Health Campus 16150 Kubang Kerian, Kelantan, Malaysia
Sarimah Abdullah, School of Medical Sciences, Universiti Sains Malaysia, Health Campus, Kubang Kerian, Kelantan, Malaysia
Unit of Biostatistics and Research Methodology, School of Medical Sciences, Universiti Sains Malaysia, Health Campus 16150, Kubang Kerian, Kelantan, Malaysia.
Mat Zuki Mat Jeab, Hospital Raja Perempuan Zainab II Kota Bharu, Kelantan, Malaysia
Respiratory Unit, Department of Medicine, Hospital Raja Perempuan Zainab II Kota Bharu,Kelantan, Malaysia and
Zilfalil Bin Alwi, School of Medical Sciences, Universiti Sains Malaysia, Health Campus, Kubang Kerian, Kelantan, Malaysia
Department of Paediatrics, School of Medical Sciences, Universiti Sains Malaysia,  Health Campus, 16150  Kubang Kerian, Kelantan, Malaysia
Nyi Nyi Naing, School of Medical Sciences, Universiti Sains Malaysia, Health Campus, Kubang Kerian, Kelantan, Malaysia
Unit of Biostatistics and Research Methodology, School of Medical Sciences, Universiti Sains Malaysia, Health Campus 16150, Kubang Kerian, Kelantan, Malaysia
Published
2015-10-29
How to Cite
1.
Elmi OS, Hasan H, Abdullah S, Mat Jeab MZ, Bin Alwi Z, Naing NN (2015) Multidrug-resistant tuberculosis and risk factors associated with its development: a retrospective study. J Infect Dev Ctries 9:1076-1085. doi: 10.3855/jidc.6162
Section
Original Articles