Clinical report of serious complications associated with measles pneumonia in children hospitalized at Shengjing hospital, China
Introduction: Despite tremendous progress made toward elimination, measles continues to pose a great threat to the health of children in developing countries. The objective of this study was to summarize and analyze the clinical characteristics and treatment experience of serious complications of measles pneumonia in children.
Methodology: The study group comprised 58 infants with severe measles pneumonia who were admitted to the Second Pediatric Intensive Care Unit, Shengjing Hospital of China Medical University, from December 2013 through May 2014. The clinical characteristics of complications such as hypoxemia, acute respiratory distress syndrome (ARDS), sepsis, pneumothorax, multiple organ dysfunction syndrome (MODS), and intracranial infection were retrospectively analyzed; in addition, the death cases were summarized and analyzed.
Results: The 58 infants experienced the following: hypoxemia, 100%; ARDS, 21%; sepsis, 34%; pneumothorax, 14%; MODS, 16%; and intracranial infection, 9%. A total of 7 infants developed a secondary bacterial infection, and 12 infants received mechanical ventilation (5 with high-frequency mechanical ventilation and 3 with mechanical ventilation and NO inhalation); the average duration of mechanical ventilation was 10.08 days, and 3 infants expired.
Conclusions: Children with measles pneumonia may experience multiple serious complications, among which ARDS and pneumothorax are particularly serious. If a patient’s condition changes abruptly, it is crucial to promptly respond to the change and to administer mechanical ventilation and appropriate antibiotics. For patients with a severe pneumothorax, and especially those with severe mediastinal emphysema, timely, continuous, retrosternal, closed thoracic drainage can effectively relieve compression.
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