Concomitant outbreaks of yellow fever and hepatitis E virus in Darfur States, Sudan, 2012

  • Sarah S Ahmed Federal Ministry of Health, Khartoum, Sudan
  • Mohammed A Soghaier Federal Ministry of Health, Khartoum, Sudan
  • Sozan Mohammed Federal Ministry of Health, Khartoum, Sudan
  • Hayat S Khogali Federal Ministry of Health, Khartoum, Sudan
  • Muntasir M Osman Federal Ministry of Health, Khartoum, Sudan
  • Abdalla M Abdalla Federal Ministry of Health, Khartoum, Sudan
Keywords: yellow fever, hepatitis E virus, co-infection, Darfur

Abstract

Introduction: Yellow fever (YF) is a vector-borne disease transmitted to humans by infected Aedes mosquitoes, while hepatitis E virus (HEV) is a waterborne disease that is transmitted through the fecal-oral route. Both diseases have very close clinical presentation, namely fever, jaundice, malaise, and dark urine; they differ in severity and outcome.

Methodology: In this cross-sectional, laboratory-based study, an attempt was made to measure the correlation of concomitant YF and HEV infection in Darfur States during the previous YF outbreak in 2012.

Results: Results found concomitant outbreaks of YF and HEV at the same time with very weak statistical correlation between the two infections during the outbreak period, with Cramer’s V correlation 0.05 and insignificant p value of 0.86.

Conclusions: This correlation indicates that clinicians and care providers in tropical areas have to deal with clinical case definitions used for disease surveillance very carefully since prevalence of HEV infection is relatively common and this increases the possibility of misclassification and missing YF  cases, particularly initial index cases, in a season or outbreak.

Author Biographies

Sarah S Ahmed, Federal Ministry of Health, Khartoum, Sudan
Medical Doctor, Microbiologist on higher training
Mohammed A Soghaier, Federal Ministry of Health, Khartoum, Sudan
Medical Doctor with Sepciality in Epidemiology and Biostatistic with experience in communicable disease outbreak investigation and control
Sozan Mohammed, Federal Ministry of Health, Khartoum, Sudan

Medical Doctor, Consultant Microbiologist

Hayat S Khogali, Federal Ministry of Health, Khartoum, Sudan
Medical Doctor, Senior Epidemiologist and Head Directorate of Epidemiology and Zoonotic Diseases- Sudan Federal Ministry of Health
Muntasir M Osman, Federal Ministry of Health, Khartoum, Sudan

Medical Doctor, Senior Epidemiologist with experiences of Hemorrhagic Fever Outbreaks

Abdalla M Abdalla, Federal Ministry of Health, Khartoum, Sudan

Public Health Specialist, Communicable Disease Surveillance Expert

Published
2016-01-31
How to Cite
1.
Ahmed SS, Soghaier MA, Mohammed S, Khogali HS, Osman MM, Abdalla AM (2016) Concomitant outbreaks of yellow fever and hepatitis E virus in Darfur States, Sudan, 2012. J Infect Dev Ctries 10:24-29. doi: 10.3855/jidc.6342
Section
Outbreak