Asymptomatic falciparum malaria and genetic polymorphisms of Pfcrt K76T and Pfmdr1 N86Y among almajirai in northeast Nigeria

  • Sulayman Tunde Balogun College of Medical Sciences, University of Maiduguri, Nigeria
  • Umar Kyari Sandabe Faculty of Veterinary Medicine, University of Maiduguri, Nigeria
  • Dauda N. Bdliya College of Medical Sciences, University of Maiduguri, Nigeria
  • Waheed A. Adedeji University College Hospital, Ibadan, Nigeria
  • Kenneth O. Okon Federal Medical Centre, Makurdi, Nigeria
  • Fatai A Fehintola College of Medicine, University of Ibadan, Nigeria
Keywords: asymptomatic malaria, almajirai, Pfcrt, malaria control, Nigeria

Abstract

Introduction: Malaria remains a public health challenge, especially in sub-Saharan Africa where asymptomatic malaria is not uncommon. In the present study, the prevalence of asymptomatic falciparum malaria was investigated in almajirai, and the genetic polymorphisms of chloroquine (CQ) resistance biomarkers were assessed.

Methodology: A total of 440 apparently healthy almajirai between 3 and 12 years of age were randomly enrolled in Maiduguri, northeast Nigeria, between July and December 2010. Parasitemia and gametocytemia were assessed by light microscopy, and polymorphisms of Pfcrt K76T and Pfmdr1 N86Y were detected by nested polymerase chain reaction (PCR) and restriction fragment length polymorphism (RFLP) techniques.

Results: The mean age of the subjects was 8.3 ± 4.5 years, with subjects ≤ 5 years accounting for 10.7% (47/440) of the population. Prevalence of asymptomatic falciparum parasitemia and gametocytemia were 12.7% (56/440) and 8.6% (38/440), respectively. Geometric mean parasite density (GMPD) was 240 (160–630) parasites/µL, while geometric mean gametocyte density (GMGD) was 53 (24–96) gametocytes/µL. The GMPD was higher among subjects ≤ 5 years of age (p = 0.027). Pfcrt 76T was detected in 5.4% (3/56) of the isolates, and no isolates harbored Pfmdr1 86Y mutant.

Conclusions: The study reveals asymptomatic falciparum malaria in almajirai and low levels of Pfcrt 76T and Pfmdr1 86Y alleles. These findings could hinder malaria control measures, and hence almajirai should be incorporated into malaria control programs.

Author Biography

Sulayman Tunde Balogun, College of Medical Sciences, University of Maiduguri, Nigeria

Lecturer I

Department of Clinical Pharmacology & Therapeutics, College of Medical Sciences, University of Maiduguri, Nigeria

Published
2016-03-31
How to Cite
1.
Balogun ST, Sandabe UK, Bdliya DN, Adedeji WA, Okon KO, Fehintola FA (2016) Asymptomatic falciparum malaria and genetic polymorphisms of Pfcrt K76T and Pfmdr1 N86Y among almajirai in northeast Nigeria. J Infect Dev Ctries 10:290-297. doi: 10.3855/jidc.6853
Section
Original Articles