Nosocomial coagulase-negative staphylococci in Belgrade: between Scylla and Charybdis
Introduction: Coagulase-negative staphylococci (CoNS) are increasingly resistant nosocomial pathogens. We aimed to analyze the prevalence of CoNS isolates in clinical settings, the evolution of antimicrobial resistance of CoNS, and antibiotic consumption in a hospital.
Methodology: This retrospective cohort study was carried out at a tertiary healthcare facility over 17 months. Identification of isolated cultures and antibiotic susceptibility testing were performed using the Vitek2 system. Of 1,217 isolates, 209 were obtained from 193 patients who had symptoms of nosocomial infections. Data were analyzed by descriptive statistics. Antibiotic consumption in the hospital is expressed in defined daily doses/100 patient days.
Results: Sixty-one percent of patients were admitted to the internal medicine ward, while others were admitted to the surgical ward. Forty-four percent of Gram-positive isolates were from wound swabs, and 26% were from blood. The predominant Gram-positive bacteria were CoNS. Antibiotic resistance of CoNS was highest against beta-lactam antibiotics, macrolides, and tetracyclines. Tigecycline, linezolid, and vancomycin produced the highest activities against CoNS in in vitro conditions, and consumption of linezolid and tigecycline increased in the same period.
Conclusion: There are just a few remaining therapeutic options for the treatment of CoNS according to our results; vancomycin, linezolid, and tigecycline might be considered as first-choice antibiotics, but such a hypothesis should be supported with a pharmacoeconomic analysis. Unfortunately, novel antimicrobial agents are still unavailable and/or too expensive in developing countries. However, inappropriate use of those antibiotics may lead to the rapid development of resistant strains in the near future.
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