Prevalence, serotype distribution, and antimicrobial resistance of Salmonella isolated from food products in Morocco
Introduction: Salmonellosis is one of the most common foodborne diseases worldwide. The irrational use of antibiotics in medicine and in animal feed has greatly promoted the emergence and spread of resistant strains of non-typhoidal Salmonella.
Methodology: A total of 464 food products were collected in Tetouan from January 2010 to December 2012. The isolation and identification of Salmonella were performed according to Moroccan standard 08.0.116. All isolates were serotyped and were then tested for antibiotic resistance using the disk diffusion method.
Results: The microbiological analysis showed that 10.3% of food samples were contaminated with Salmonella. Eleven serotypes were identified: Kentucky 22.9% (11/48), Agona 16.7% (8/48), Reading 12.5% (6/48), Corvallis 8.3% (4/48), Saintpaul 8.3% (4/48), Typhimurium 6.2% (3/48), Montevideo 6.2% (3/48), Enteritidis 4.2% (2/48), and 2% (1/48) for each of Israel, Hadar, and Branderup.
Drug susceptibility testing showed that 39.6% of Salmonella were resistant to at least one antibiotic and 60.4% were susceptible to all tested antibiotics. The highest percentage of resistance was found to the following antimicrobial agents: nalidixic acid (27.1%), sulfonamides (25%), amoxicillin (12.5%), amoxicillin/clavulanic acid 12.5%, trimethoprim (10.4%), cephalothin (4.2%), and chloramphenicol (2.1%).
Conclusions: This study revealed a relatively high prevalence of Salmonella in food products in Tetouan and a large percentage of drug-resistant strains. Hygienic measures should be rigorously implemented, and monitoring resistance of Salmonella is required to reduce the risks related to the emergence of multi-resistant bacteria.
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