Trichophyton verrucosum infection in livestock in the Chitral district of Pakistan

  • Khalid Hameed Arid Agriculture University Rawalpindi, Rawalpindi, Pakistan
  • Farhana Riaz Ch Arid Agriculture University Rawalpindi, Rawalpindi, Pakistan
  • Muhammad Ali Nawaz Quaid-i-Azam University, Islamabad, Pakistan
  • Syed Muhammad Saqlan Naqvi Arid Agriculture University Rawalpindi, Rawalpindi, Pakistan
  • Yvonne Gräser Universitätsmedizin Berlin – Charité, Berlin, Germany
  • Christiane Kupsch Universitätsmedizin Berlin – Charité, Berlin, Germany
  • Mario Pasquetti University of Turin, Turin, Italy
  • Luca Rossi University of Turin, Turin, Italy
  • Anna Rita Molinar Min University of Turin, Turin, Italy
  • Paolo Tizzani University of Turin, Turin, Italy
  • Elisa Chiavassa University of Turin, Turin, Italy
  • Andrea Peano University of Turin, Turin, Italy

Abstract

Introduction: Trichophyton verrucosum belongs to the dermatophyte fungi, closely related organisms that cause skin infections in animals and humans. T. verrucosum infection has been reported in livestock and people in different countries from all continents. Human cases have been reported in different areas of Pakistan, but there is little information about the animal source of the fungus.

Methodology: Dermatological specimens collected in the Chitral district of Pakistan for a study on mange in livestock were retrospectively analyzed for the presence of T. verrucosum. In total, 5,873 animals (1,087 cows, 2,033 goats, and 2,753 sheep) were screened for evidence of dermatological lesions during two surveys performed in the summer and winter seasons. Skin scrapings collected from animals with lesions were analyzed by direct microscopic examination after digestion in sodium hydroxide and a real-time polymerase chain reaction (PCR) targeting pathogenic Trichophyton species.

Results: At microscopy, samples from 18 cows (1.6%), 3 sheep (0.1%), and 4 goats (0.2%) were positive for fungal elements consistent with T. verrucosum. PCR confirmed the microscopy results. The prevalence was lower than that reported in other countries in intensive breeding farms. Results agree with the literature regarding factors affecting T. verrucosum diffusion, i.e., infection was more prevalent in cattle, especially in younger animals during the winter season.

Conclusions: This study reports, for the first time, the presence of T. verrucosum in livestock in Pakistan. A better knowledge of the animal role in the spread of this fungus may allow the adoption of more efficient control measures and prophylaxis.

Published
2017-04-30
How to Cite
Hameed K, Riaz Ch F, Nawaz M, Naqvi S, Gräser Y, Kupsch C, Pasquetti M, Rossi L, Molinar Min A, Tizzani P, Chiavassa E, Peano A (2017) Trichophyton verrucosum infection in livestock in the Chitral district of Pakistan. The Journal Of Infection In Developing Countries 11 (04): 326-333. https://doi.org/10.3855/jidc.7925
Section
Original Articles

Keywords

Trichophyton verrucosum; cattle; sheep; goat; ringworm; zoonosis