Microbiological profile of ventilator-associated pneumonia among intensive care unit patients in tertiary Egyptian hospitals
Keywords:Ventilator-Associated Pneumonia, Genotyping, ERIC, Intensive care unit, Multidrug-resistant
Introduction: Ventilator-associated pneumonia (VAP) is one of the common serious infectious diseases encountered in the intensive care unit (ICU), which highly affects the healthcare cost and patient prognosis. VAP is caused by various antimicrobial-resistant aetiological agents and the clinical manifestations lack sensitivity and specificity, making the prompt treatment is a challenge. This study aimed to investigate the microbial profile of VAP causing microorganisms among ICU patients in Egypt, antimicrobial susceptibility patterns and the genetic diversity among the frequently isolated organisms.
Methodology: Throughout the period from August 2016 to August 2017, endotracheal aspirate (ETA) specimens were collected from ICU patients with clinically suspected VAP in two tertiary hospitals in Cairo. ETA specimens were investigated for the microbial content. The antimicrobial susceptibility was determined by the Kirby-Bauer method. ERIC-PCR was performed for genotyping.
Results: Fifty microbiologically confirmed VAP cases were identified. The most frequently isolated microorganisms were Klebsiella spp., followed by Pseudomonas aeruginosa, Acinetobacter baumannii. Candida spp. was the most isolated fungi. A single isolate of each Cupriavidus pauculus and Aeromonas salmonicida was isolated. Antimicrobial susceptibility profiles indicated 40% of isolates were multidrug-resistant (MDR). ERIC-PCR revealed no genetic relatedness among K. pneumoniae isolates, the most frequently isolated microorganism.
Conclusions: Gram-negative bacteria are the main causative agents of VAP cases, which mostly are MDR. Microorganisms like C. pauculus and A. salmonicida should be taken into consideration as VAP causative agents. There was no common source of infection suggesting likely endogenous sources of K. pneumoniae, the main causative agent of VAP in this study.
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