Risk factors for negative T-SPOT.TB assay results in patients with confirmed active tuberculosis: A retrospective study
Introduction: The interferon-γ release assays as potent adjunct tools for the quick detection of TB in high burden countries is feasible. In this retrospective study, we aimed to identify the risk factors for negative T-SPOT results in confirmed active tuberculosis.
Methodology: We consecutively enrolled 1,021 patients who were positive for acid-fast bacilli smear staining or culture-confirmed mycobacterial infection and simultaneously tested with the T-SPOT.TB assay. All of the included specimens were used to discriminate the Mycobacterium species using the biochip assay. We collected basic clinical characteristics and laboratory results for further analysis.
Results: Of the 1,021 patients enrolled in the study, 89 patients were identified as having nontuberculous mycobacteria (NTM). Ninety-nine patients were excluded from the analysis because of indeterminate T-SPOT.TB results, while the remaining 833 patients were identified as having Mycobacterium tuberculosis infection. In total, 159 patients had false-negative T-SPOT.TB results (19.1% of 833). The concordance rate between the T-SPOT.TB results and final diagnoses in females was always lower than that in males. Multivariate logistic regression analysis showed that female sex (OR 1.81; 95% CI 1.19, 2.7; p = 0.006), age (OR 1.02; 95% CI 1.01, 1.03; p = 0.003), acid-fast bacilli (AFB) smear-negative (OR 5.45; 95% CI 3.62, 8.19; p < 0.001), HIV coinfection (OR 6.83; 95% CI 2.73, 17.10; p < 0.001) were associated with negative T-SPOT.TB result.
Conclusions: Female is another independent risk factor of negative T-SPOT.TB results, besides to elder, HIV co-infection, acid-fast bacilli (AFB) smear-negative who are suspected of having active TB infection.
Copyright (c) 2020 Yanwan Shangguan, Hong Fang, Shuting Wang, Zhongkang Ji, Pei Shi, Xuewen Feng, Kaijin Xu
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