Whole Genome Sequencing and Phylogenetic Analysis of SARS‑CoV‑2 strains in Turkey
Keywords:Coronaviruses, SARS-CoV-2, NGS, clade, lineage
Introduction: Coronaviruses which are single-stranded RNAs, are members of a large family of viruses that may be important pathogens for humans. SARS-CoV-2 was found to cause the severe respiratory syndrome, and on January 22, 2020 first human-to-human transmission was reported. We aimed to reveal the complete genomes of 19 SARS-CoV-2 isolates from Denizli province and identify Turkish patients' genetic similarities.
Methodology: 15 samples with the highest viral loads resulting from RT-PCR were selected for NGS analysis. Fifteen SARS-CoV-2 complete genome sequences were then subjected to phylogenetic analysis and uploaded to the GISAID database. Phylogenetic trees were constructed by the Neighbor-Joining method using MEGAX software.
Results: Whole-genome sequencing of the viral RNA samples revealed 32 missense, 21 synonymous, and 4 non-coding alleles. In all samples c.1-25C>T (5’UTR), c.14144C>T (ORF1ab), c.2772C>T (ORF1ab) and c.1841A>G(S) mutations were detected. Phylogenetic analysis revealed that most of the present study's genomes are in 20B clade while the two are in 20A. The phylogenetic tree constructed with all complete SARS-CoV-2 genomes of Turkey showed that the viruses were spread nearly homogenous on eastern (around Kars) and western (around Istanbul) sides.
Conclusions: Here, we reported the viral genomes in Denizli comprehensively for the first time. We identified 11 rare missense mutations in the virus compared to the reference genome. Phylogenetic analysis revealed that while most of our isolates were similar to European sequences, some had different sublineages depending on their genomic variants.
How to Cite
Authors who publish with this journal agree to the following terms:
- Authors retain copyright and grant the journal right of first publication with the work simultaneously licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution License that allows others to share the work with an acknowledgement of the work's authorship and initial publication in this journal.
- Authors are able to enter into separate, additional contractual arrangements for the non-exclusive distribution of the journal's published version of the work (e.g., post it to an institutional repository or publish it in a book), with an acknowledgement of its initial publication in this journal.
- Authors are permitted and encouraged to post their work online (e.g., in institutional repositories or on their website) prior to and during the submission process, as it can lead to productive exchanges, as well as earlier and greater citation of published work (See The Effect of Open Access).