Serum Micronutrients as related to Childhood Pneumonia Severity and Outcome in a Nigerian Health Facility

  • Bankole Peter Kuti Department of Paediatrics, Wesley Guild Hospital, Ilesa, Nigeria
  • Hammed Hassan Adetola Department of Paediatrics, Wesley Guild Hospital, Ilesa, Nigeria
  • Oyeku Akibu Oyelami Department of Paediatrics, Wesley Guild Hospital, Ilesa, Nigeria
Keywords: Pneumonia, trace elements, micronutrients, vitamin, antioxidants

Abstract

Introduction: Micronutrients are essential minerals and vitamins needed for optimal health. There are however conflicting reports about the roles of micronutrients in severity and outcomes of childhood pneumonia. This study aims to determine the socio-demographic and serum micronutrients – Zinc (Zn), Selenium (Se), Vitamins (Vit) A, C and E status of Nigerian children with or without pneumonia and relate these to pneumonia severity and outcome.

Methodology: Children aged two months to 14 years with severe and non-severe pneumonia were recruited with age and sex-matched controls over 12 month period in a Nigerian tertiary health centre. Relevant history and serum micronutrients were compared in the two groups and related to pneumonia severity and length of hospitalisation (LOH).

Results: One hundred and forty-four children (72 for each group) were recruited with median (IQR) age 1.6 (0.6 – 4.0) years and fifty-six (38.8%) had severe pneumonia. Pneumonia incidence was associated with undernutrition, inappropriate immunisation and Zn deficiency (p < 0.05). Hypovitaminosis A [60.8(22.2)µg/dl vs. 89.5(34.7)µg/dl; p < 0.001], low serum Zn [71.6(32.5)µg/dl vs. 92.6(24.6)µg/dl; p=0.019] and indoor air pollution (IAP) were associated with pneumonia severity. However, only IAP (OR = 4.529; 95%CI 1.187–17.284; p=0.027) and Zn deficiency (OR=6.144; 95%CI 1.157–32.617; p=0.033) independently predicted severe pneumonia. No significant correlation between serum micronutrients and LOH.

Conclusions: Exposure to IAP and low serum micronutrients particularly Zn and Vit A were associated with pneumonia incidence and severity in Nigerian children. Routine micronutrient supplementation may assist to reduce the burden of childhood pneumonia in developing countries.

Author Biographies

Hammed Hassan Adetola, Department of Paediatrics, Wesley Guild Hospital, Ilesa, Nigeria

Senior registrar, Department of Paediatrics, Wesley Guild hospital, Ilesa, Nigeria

Oyeku Akibu Oyelami, Department of Paediatrics, Wesley Guild Hospital, Ilesa, Nigeria

Professor, Department of Paediatrics and Child Health, Obafemi Awolowo University, Ile-Ife, Nigeria

Published
2021-07-31
How to Cite
1.
Kuti BP, Adetola HH, Oyelami OA (2021) Serum Micronutrients as related to Childhood Pneumonia Severity and Outcome in a Nigerian Health Facility. J Infect Dev Ctries 15:953-961. doi: 10.3855/jidc.13792
Section
Original Articles