A systemic review of literatures on human Salmonella enterica serovars in Nigeria (1999-2018)
Introduction: Salmonella infections are endemic in Nigeria. There is lack of reliable data on culture-positive Salmonella with national coverage. This systemic review of literatures was undertaken to aggregate data on culture proven cases of human Salmonellae and to determine the prevailing serotypes for disease burden estimations.
Methodology: This involved comprehensive search engines of Pubmed, Google Scholar, Google and Embase for the literatures on culture positive human Salmonellae from 1999-2018. This review documented the prevalence, common Salmonella serotypes. antibiotic resistance and risk factors associated with human Salmonella infections.
Results: This study revealed that 21out of 36 States in Nigeria reported Salmonella-associated diseases, spanning the six geopolitical zones. Our study revealed prevalence of 1.9% (2,732/143,756) Salmonella-bacteraemia and 16.3% (1,967/12,081) Salmonella-associated gastroenteritis. Fifty-three 53 Salmonella serotypes were identified. 39 serotypes were associated with Salmonella-bacteraemia and 31 serotypes with Salmonella-gastroenteritis. Salmonella typhi remains the commonest serotype accounting for 85.2% for Salmonella-bacteraemia and 73.1% Salmonella-gastroenteritis. S. typhimurium (3.8%) was mostly implicated invasive non-typhoidal serotype followed S. enteritidis (2.8%) among others. Human Immunodeficiency Virus-infected individuals, malnutrition was among factors predisposing Salmonella infections. Over 60% of the reported Salmonella isolates developed resistance to two or more of 23 antibiotics recorded, mostly ampicillin, cotrimoxazole, tetracycline and amoxicillin.
Conclusions: This study revealed 39 Invasive and 31 non-invasive Salmonella serotypes. Ampicillin, cotrimoxazole, amoxicillin-clavulanate and tetracycline are the most frequently reported antibiotics resisted by Salmonella isolates. This antimicrobial resistance exhibited poses a threat to public health. Data generated from this review would serve as a baseline information for future surveillance studies.
Copyright (c) 2021 Kabiru Olusegun Akinyemi, Samuel Ajoseh, Christopher Fakorede
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