A Trypanosoma cruzi strain from southern Mexico is more virulent for male mice in part by blocking the immune response

  • Celeste Amaranta Palma-González Biological Sciences Institute, University of Sciences and Arts of the state of Chiapas, Tuxtla Gutiérrez, Chiapas, México
  • Héctor Israel Recinos-Vázquez Biological Sciences Institute, University of Sciences and Arts of the state of Chiapas, Tuxtla Gutiérrez, Chiapas, México
  • Julio César Burguete-Gutiérrez Biological Sciences Institute, University of Sciences and Arts of the state of Chiapas, Tuxtla Gutiérrez, Chiapas, México
  • José Antonio De Fuentes-Vicente Biological Sciences Institute, University of Sciences and Arts of the state of Chiapas, Tuxtla Gutiérrez, Chiapas, México https://orcid.org/0000-0001-6507-0964
  • María Adelina Schlie-Guzmán Biological Sciences Institute, University of Sciences and Arts of the state of Chiapas, Tuxtla Gutiérrez, Chiapas, México
  • Dolores Guadalupe Vidal-López Biological Sciences Institute, University of Sciences and Arts of the state of Chiapas, Tuxtla Gutiérrez, Chiapas, México
  • Jesús Díaz-Gómez Biological Sciences Institute, University of Sciences and Arts of the state of Chiapas, Tuxtla Gutiérrez, Chiapas, México
  • Jorge Eugenio Vidal Department of Microbiology and Immunology, University of Mississippi Medical Center, Jackson, MS, United States https://orcid.org/0000-0003-0573-5658
  • Javier Gutiérrez-Jiménez Biological Sciences Institute, University of Sciences and Arts of the state of Chiapas, Tuxtla Gutiérrez, Chiapas, México http://orcid.org/0000-0001-8137-3500
Keywords: Chagas disease, pathogenicity, southern Mexico, immune response

Abstract

Introduction: Chagas disease is a neglected disease in the American continent. The southern Mexican state of Chiapas has the highest incidence rate of Chagas disease in the country. The disease, mainly caused by Tripanosoma cruzi in Mexico, is more prevalent in males than in females but the scientific basis for the sex-related tropism is not completely understood. The objective of this study was to evaluate the pathogenicity of a T. cruzi strain in mice of both sexes and to assess certain elements of the immune response in the infected animals.

Methodology: Triatomines bugs were searched at Los Mezcales, Chiapas, Mexico and T. cruzi was identified by PCR and sequencing. A T. cruzi strain was isolated from the feces of triatomines bugs. Mice were infected with the strain and the virulence of the T. cruzi strain as well as the immune response against the infection was compared in male versus female mice.

Results: T. dimidiata was identified in all dwellings. 42.9% of the bugs were infected with T. cruzi lineage TcI. Male mice exhibited higher parasitemia than females, and developed leukopenia and lower levels of anti-T. cruzi antibodies compared to female mice.

Conclusions: The identification of the T. cruzi strain in this endemic region of Mexico revealed that male mice are prone to this infectious protozoo, in addition to manifesting a deficient immune response against infection. These findings may explain the greater number of cases of Chagas disease among men in this endemic region of Latin America.

Author Biographies

Celeste Amaranta Palma-González, Biological Sciences Institute, University of Sciences and Arts of the state of Chiapas, Tuxtla Gutiérrez, Chiapas, México

Instituto de Ciencias Biológicas

Héctor Israel Recinos-Vázquez, Biological Sciences Institute, University of Sciences and Arts of the state of Chiapas, Tuxtla Gutiérrez, Chiapas, México

Instituto de Ciencias Biológicas

Julio César Burguete-Gutiérrez, Biological Sciences Institute, University of Sciences and Arts of the state of Chiapas, Tuxtla Gutiérrez, Chiapas, México

Instituto de Ciencias Biológicas

José Antonio De Fuentes-Vicente, Biological Sciences Institute, University of Sciences and Arts of the state of Chiapas, Tuxtla Gutiérrez, Chiapas, México

Instituto de Ciencias Biológicas

María Adelina Schlie-Guzmán, Biological Sciences Institute, University of Sciences and Arts of the state of Chiapas, Tuxtla Gutiérrez, Chiapas, México

Instituto de Ciencias Biológicas

Dolores Guadalupe Vidal-López, Biological Sciences Institute, University of Sciences and Arts of the state of Chiapas, Tuxtla Gutiérrez, Chiapas, México

Instituto de Ciencias Biológicas

Jesús Díaz-Gómez, Biological Sciences Institute, University of Sciences and Arts of the state of Chiapas, Tuxtla Gutiérrez, Chiapas, México

Instituto de Ciencias Biológicas

Jorge Eugenio Vidal, Department of Microbiology and Immunology, University of Mississippi Medical Center, Jackson, MS, United States

Department of Microbiology and Immunology

Javier Gutiérrez-Jiménez, Biological Sciences Institute, University of Sciences and Arts of the state of Chiapas, Tuxtla Gutiérrez, Chiapas, México

Professor in Microbiology, Laboratorio de Biología Molecular y Genética, Instituto de Ciencias Biológicas

Published
2021-11-30
How to Cite
1.
Palma-González CA, Recinos-Vázquez HI, Burguete-Gutiérrez JC, De Fuentes-Vicente JA, Schlie-Guzmán MA, Vidal-López DG, Díaz-Gómez J, Vidal JE, Gutiérrez-Jiménez J (2021) A Trypanosoma cruzi strain from southern Mexico is more virulent for male mice in part by blocking the immune response. J Infect Dev Ctries 15:1714-1723. doi: 10.3855/jidc.15211
Section
Original Articles