Cutaneous leishmaniasis in protected environmental areas in the Eastern Amazon: the case of São Félix do Xingu, Pará, Brazil

  • Rafael Aleixo Coelho de Oliveira Epidemiology and Geoprocessing Laboratory of the Amazon (EPIGEO), Pará State University (UEPA), Belém, Brazil
  • Claudia do Socorro Carvalho Miranda Epidemiology and Geoprocessing Laboratory of the Amazon (EPIGEO), Pará State University (UEPA), Belém, Brazil
  • Juan Andrade Guedes Epidemiology and Geoprocessing Laboratory of the Amazon (EPIGEO), Pará State University (UEPA), Belém, Brazil
  • TainaraCarvalho Garcia Miranda Filgueiras Epidemiology and Geoprocessing Laboratory of the Amazon (EPIGEO), Pará State University (UEPA), Belém, Brazil
  • Cléa Nazaré Carneiro Bichara Epidemiology and Geoprocessing Laboratory of the Amazon (EPIGEO), Pará State University (UEPA), Belém, Brazil
  • Marília de Souza Araújo Epidemiology and Geoprocessing Laboratory of the Amazon (EPIGEO), Pará State University (UEPA), Belém, Brazil
  • Claudia Nazaré de Souza Almeida Titan Martins Epidemiology and Geoprocessing Laboratory of the Amazon (EPIGEO), Pará State University (UEPA), Belém, Brazil
  • Erica Feio Carneiro Nunes Epidemiology and Geoprocessing Laboratory of the Amazon (EPIGEO), Pará State University (UEPA), Belém, Brazil
  • Ana Lydia Lédo de Castro Ribeiro Cabeça Epidemiology and Geoprocessing Laboratory of the Amazon (EPIGEO), Pará State University (UEPA), Belém, Brazil
  • Manoel Antonio Costa de Rezende Epidemiology and Geoprocessing Laboratory of the Amazon (EPIGEO), Pará State University (UEPA), Belém, Brazil
  • Selma Kazumi da Trindade Noguchi Epidemiology and Geoprocessing Laboratory of the Amazon (EPIGEO), Pará State University (UEPA), Belém, Brazil
  • Nelson Veiga Gonçalves Epidemiology and Geoprocessing Laboratory of the Amazon (EPIGEO), Pará State University (UEPA), Belém, Brazil
Keywords: Epidemiology, Spatial Analysis, Protected areas

Abstract

Introduction: Cutaneous Leishmaniasis is a disease transmitted to men and animals by infected female phlebotomine sandflies and is considered a great environmental and public health problem in the Amazon region. Thus, the study aimed to analyze the spatial distribution of this disease in São Félix do Xingu, in the state of Pará, Brazil, and its relationship with epidemiological and environmental variables, in the period from 2012 to 2016.

Methodology: The data used were from the Information System of the Pará State Secretariat of Health, the National Institute for Space Research and the Brazilian Institute of Geography and Statistics. The statistical and spatial analysis of the variables were done using non-parametric chi-square statistical test, kernel interpolation technique and the Bivariate Global Moran Index.

Results: The municipality had 183 confirmed cases, non-homogeneously distributed in 5 administrative districts. The individuals most affected were adult males with brown skin, an elementary level of education and rural area residents. In the case series, a direct relationship was observed between the increase of the number of cases and deforestation in the study area. The spatial analysis showed different types of land use and cover related to case clusters in the municipality. Additionally, there was a presence of cases in protected areas and a great epidemiological silence in indigenous lands.

Conclusions: Thus, this disease is a large and complex public health problem in the municipality, related to social and environmental risk factors.

Published
2021-11-30
How to Cite
1.
de Oliveira RAC, Miranda C do SC, Guedes JA, Filgueiras TGM, Bichara CNC, Araújo M de S, Martins CN de SAT, Nunes EFC, Cabeça ALL de CR, de Rezende MAC, Noguchi SK da T, Gonçalves NV (2021) Cutaneous leishmaniasis in protected environmental areas in the Eastern Amazon: the case of São Félix do Xingu, Pará, Brazil. J Infect Dev Ctries 15:1724-1730. doi: 10.3855/jidc.13936
Section
Original Articles