Impact of the bronchopulmonary sequestration on endobronchial tuberculosis: the case report and the review of literature
Introduction: We describe the rare case of endobronchial tuberculosis (EBTB) and chronic pulmonary atelectasis with mediastinal distortion. Finding of the concomitant venous anomaly of inferior vena cava revealed the diagnosis of bronchopulmonary sequestration.
Case Report: A 22-year-old Caucasian woman presented with a history of chronic cough, initially treated as bronchial asthma for a year. Chest X-ray showed fibrocaseous cavernous tuberculosis on the right lung. Acid Fast Bacilli (AFB) were found in sputum samples. Patient was treated for 6 months with usual antituberculous regiment. Control chest X-ray showed subatelectasis of the upper right lobe. Six months later the first thorax computed tomography (CT) showed complete atelectasis of the right lung. Patient was admitted to the hospital again after 6 years due to the persistent fever and cough. Endoscopic finding and histopathological analysis confirmed EBTB. Thoracic CT scan revealed duplication of inferior vena cava which led to profound vascular analysis and aberrant arterial vascularization of aortic origin that contributed to the diagnosis of bronchopulmonary sequestrations. Antituberculous treatment was initiated (streptomycin, isoniazid, rifampicin, ethambutol and pyrazinamide) and lasted for 8 months. After 8 months a follow-up fiberoptic bronchoscopy showed the progression of endoscopic finding with 60-70% tracheal stenosis. Histopathological finding of the mid-trachea showed non-specific granulations. During 7 years of follow-up repeated bronchoscopy and thoracic CT scans were unchanged and patient was well-shaped.
Conclusions: The clinician should consider bronchopulmonary sequestration in the cases of recurrent EBTB.
Copyright (c) 2021 Tatjana Adzic-Vukicevic, Ana Petkovic, Nemanja Menkovic, Maja Stosic, Milos Bracanovic, Stefan Korica; Aleksandra Barac
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