Spatial distribution of malaria and primary healthcare in Cametá and Tucuruí, Pará state, Brazil

  • Maira Cibelle da Silva Peixoto Epidemiology and Geoprocessing Laboratory of the Amazon, Pará State University, Belém, PA, Brazil https://orcid.org/0000-0002-9315-7888
  • Claudia do Socorro Carvalho Miranda Epidemiology and Geoprocessing Laboratory of the Amazon, Pará State University, Belém, PA, Brazil https://orcid.org/0000-0002-1913-7176
  • Pedro Silvestre da Silva Campos Cyberspace Institute, Federal Rural University of Amazon, Belém, PA, Brazil https://orcid.org/0000-0001-8476-5569
  • Alba Lucia Ribeiro Raithy Pereira Epidemiology and Geoprocessing Laboratory of the Amazon, Pará State University, Belém, PA, Brazil https://orcid.org/0000-0002-0672-6596
  • Marília de Souza Araújo Health Science Institute, Federal University of Pará, Belém, PA, Brazil https://orcid.org/0000-0002-9888-7548
  • Emerson Cordeiro Morais Cyberspace Institute, Federal Rural University of Amazon, Belém, PA, Brazil
  • Roberto Carlos Figueiredo João de Barros Barreto University Hospital, Federal University of Pará, Belém, PA, Brazil https://orcid.org/0000-0001-9951-4551
  • Adriana Veiga da Conceição Silva Epidemiology and Geoprocessing Laboratory of the Amazon, Pará State University, Belém, PA, Brazil https://orcid.org/0000-0001-5004-3381
  • João Sérgio de Sousa Oliveira Epidemiology and Geoprocessing Laboratory of the Amazon, Pará State University, Belém, PA, Brazil https://orcid.org/0000-0002-1515-9976
  • Nelson Veiga Gonçalves Epidemiology and Geoprocessing Laboratory of the Amazon, Pará State University, Belém, PA, Brazil https://orcid.org/0000-0003-0276-9318
Keywords: malaria, epidemiology, primary healthcare, public health, spatial analysis

Abstract

Introduction: Malaria cases in Brazil are concentrated in the Amazon region. In the state of Pará, malaria is considered an endemic disease, and the population has different levels of exposure, which contributes to different types of occurrence in the municipalities.

Methodology: A descriptive, cross-sectional, and ecological study was conducted using data from the Malaria Epidemiological Surveillance System of the municipalities of Cametá and Tucuruí, PA, Brazil, from 2014 to 2018; the Brazilian Institute of Geography and Statistics; and the National Registry of Health Institutions of the Ministry of Health. Statistical and spatial analyses of epidemiological, laboratory and public health service coverage variables were performed using the Bioestat 5.0 and ArcGis 10.5 software.

Results: 11,381 Malaria cases were reported in the two municipalities. The highest percentage of case notifications was reported in brown-skinned men aged from 19 and 59 years, and who had primary education levels. The predominant occupations were farming and livestock in Cametá and domestic activity in Tucuruí. The most common diagnostic examination used was a thick blood smear, and Plasmodium vivax was the species most often encountered. The percentage of primary care coverage increased during the study period. The spatial distribution of the disease was not homogeneous, and there were clusters of cases with different densities in Cametá and Tucuruí.

Conclusions: Malaria is a public health problem in the municipalities of Cametá and Tucuruí, because of its transmission dynamics and variable spatial distribution as well as the coexistence of factors that favor the exposure of resident populations to epidemiological situations, thus reflecting health inequities.

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Published
2022-01-31
How to Cite
1.
PeixotoMC da S, MirandaC do SC, CamposPS da S, Pereira ALRR, AraújoM de S, Morais EC, Figueiredo RC, SilvaAV da C, OliveiraJS de S, Gonçalves NV (2022) Spatial distribution of malaria and primary healthcare in Cametá and Tucuruí, Pará state, Brazil. J Infect Dev Ctries 16:206-212. doi: 10.3855/jidc.15260
Section
Original Articles