Interferon gamma release assay post BCG among newborns and family members living in a crowded area in Jakarta, Indonesia
Introduction: BCG vaccine is a mandatory for newborn in Indonesia, an endemic tuberculosis (TB) country that ranks second worldwide. A close contact with untreated active pulmonary TB individuals in a crowded area may result in TB disease or otherwise develop a latent TB infection (LTBI), as shown by positive result of interferon gamma release assay (IGRA).
Objective: To explore LTBI among newborns and their family members living in a crowded area in Jakarta, Indonesia.
Methodology: A prospective analytical study was conducted among newborns between October 2016 and March 2017. IGRA was examined before BCG vaccination and after 12 weeks. In parallel, TB active case finding was performed among family members of the newborns.
Results: Out of 135 newborns, only 117 (86.7%) came for BCG vaccination. Of 346 family members screened, 8 (2.3%) were detected as untreated active pulmonary TB, confirmed by positive sputum and/or MTB culture. Family members living in the same house with active TB individuals (p = 0.011, OR 2.69) as well as being males (p = 0.025, OR 1.68) had a significant higher risk of having a positive IGRA.
Conclusions: Untreated pulmonary TB infection in a crowded area infects the surrounding neighbors, resulting in latent TB infection. An active program for detecting pulmonary TB cases and preventive measures need to be taken seriously to contain the potential spread of the infection.
Copyright (c) 2022 Fransica Srioetami Tanoerahardjo, Indri Rooslamiati, Natalie Kipuw, Hadiyanto, Soegianto Ali, Edhyana Sahiratmadja
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