Interferon gamma release assay post BCG among newborns and family members living in a crowded area in Jakarta, Indonesia

  • Francisca Srioetami Tanoerahardjo National Institute of Health Research and Development, Ministry of Health Republic of Indonesia
  • Indri Rooslamiati National Institute of Health Research and Development, Ministry of Health Republic of Indonesia
  • Natalie Kipuw National Institute of Health Research and Development, Ministry of Health Republic of Indonesia
  • Hadiyanto School of Medicine and Health Sciences, Atma Jaya Catholic University of Indonesia, Jakarta, Indonesia
  • Soegianto Ali School of Medicine and Health Sciences, Atma Jaya Catholic University of Indonesia, Jakarta, Indonesia
  • Edhyana Sahiratmadja Faculty of Medicine, Universitas Padjadjaran, Bandung, Indonesia
Keywords: IGRA, BCG, newborn, tuberculosis, Indonesia

Abstract

Introduction: BCG vaccine is a mandatory for newborn in Indonesia, an endemic tuberculosis (TB) country that ranks second worldwide. A close contact with untreated active pulmonary TB individuals in a crowded area may result in TB disease or otherwise develop a latent TB infection (LTBI), as shown by positive result of interferon gamma release assay (IGRA).

Objective: To explore LTBI among newborns and their family members living in a crowded area in Jakarta, Indonesia.

Methodology: A prospective analytical study was conducted among newborns between October 2016 and March 2017. IGRA was examined before BCG vaccination and after 12 weeks. In parallel, TB active case finding was performed among family members of the newborns.

Results: Out of 135 newborns, only 117 (86.7%) came for BCG vaccination. Of 346 family members screened, 8 (2.3%) were detected as untreated active pulmonary TB, confirmed by positive sputum and/or MTB culture. Family members living in the same house with active TB individuals (p = 0.011, OR 2.69) as well as being males (p = 0.025, OR 1.68) had a significant higher risk of having a positive IGRA.

Conclusions: Untreated pulmonary TB infection in a crowded area infects the surrounding neighbors, resulting in latent TB infection. An active program for detecting pulmonary TB cases and preventive measures need to be taken seriously to contain the potential spread of the infection.

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Published
2022-04-30
How to Cite
1.
Srioetami TanoerahardjoF, Rooslamiati I, Kipuw N, Hadiyanto, Ali S, Sahiratmadja E (2022) Interferon gamma release assay post BCG among newborns and family members living in a crowded area in Jakarta, Indonesia. J Infect Dev Ctries 16:638-643. doi: 10.3855/jidc.15290
Section
Original Articles