In vitro antifungal activity of Morinda citrifolia (noni) extract against Candida albicans
Keywords:Morinda citrifolia, noni, Candida albicans, THP-1, HeLa, cytotoxicity
Introduction: Candida albicans is the main agent of the most common fungal infection, Candidiasis. It is an opportunistic and dangerous pathogen, especially in immunosuppressed patients. The biological properties of Morinda citrifolia (noni) make it a potent antifungal. In this study, antifungal effect of M. citrifolia was evaluated to verify its effect on human cells.
Methodology: Extract of M. citrifolia was used against strains of C. albicans (cEC 1291). Glucose consumption in C. albicans biofilm was determined at different concentrations of M. citrifolia, and germ tube formation was evaluated in the presence and absence of M. citrifolia. Fungicidal activity was determined by the kinetics of fungal cell death. THP-1 and HeLa cells were used for cell viability and apoptosis, and cell proliferation assays, respectively.
Results: Cells treated with M. citrifolia maintained higher concentration of glucose than the control group (p < 0.05). Germ tube formation was inhibited in cells treated with M. citrifolia (p < 0.05). M. citrifolia exerted a cytotoxic effect on C. albicans cells with 99.99% lethality after 6.82 h (1:1 and 1:2), and reduced the viability of THP-1 cells by 25% and 67% after 12 and 36 h, respectively. Annexin V expression in THP-1 increased in groups that received higher concentrations of M. citrifolia (p < 0.05), reducing the proliferation of THP-1 and HeLa cells (2.8-fold). A greater cytotoxic effect was observed in fungal cells.
Conclusions: These results indicate that M. citrifolia exerts biological activity against C. albicans and reduces the viability and proliferation of human cells.
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