Genetic identity, human blood indices, and sporozoite rates of malaria vectors in Gaa-Bolorunduro, Kwara State, Nigeria

  • Abiodun Obembe Department of Biosciences and Biotechnology, Kwara State University, Malete, Nigeria
  • Adedayo Olatunbosun Oduola Department of Zoology, University of Ilorin, Nigeria
  • Tolulope Amos Oyeniyi Molecular Entomology and Vector Control Research Laboratory, Nigerian Institute of Medical, Research, Yaba, Lagos, Nigeria
  • Abiodun Kanmi Olakiigbe Molecular Entomology and Vector Control Research Laboratory, Nigerian Institute of Medical, Research, Yaba, Lagos, Nigeria
  • Samson Taiwo Awolola Molecular Entomology and Vector Control Research Laboratory, Nigerian Institute of Medical, Research, Yaba, Lagos, Nigeria
Keywords: Malaria, Anopheles, Plasmodium, sporozoite, transmission

Abstract

Introduction: To identify the specific Anopheles mosquito sibling species responsible for malaria transmission, determine their vectorial potential, and predict suitable control measures, this study investigated genetic identities, human blood feeding, and sporozoite infection rates of endophilic Anopheles mosquitoes in Gaa-Bolorunduro, a cattle rearing community in Kwara State, Nigeria.

Methodology: Monthly pyrethrum spray collections of Anopheles mosquitoes were conducted for one year in addition to PCR characterization of sibling species and ELISA probing of human blood meal and sporozoite infections. Mean numbers and human blood indices (HBI) of the different Anopheles sibling species identified were compared.

Results: The total of 668 PCR-identified mosquitoes comprised 50.8% An. arabiensis, 46.7% An. gambiae, and 2.5% An. coluzzii. Annual mean numbers of An. arabiensis was significantly higher (p = 0.001) than An. coluzzii but not An. gambiae (p = 0.602). Proportions of An. arabiensis found with human blood (0.29) were lower compared to An. gambiae (0.72) and An. coluzzii (0.75). However, the annual mean HBI of An. arabiensis was not significantly higher than An. gambiae (p = 0.195) and An. coluzzii (p = 0.249). Plasmodium falciparum sporozoite infection rate was 1.6% in An. gambiae, 0.9% in An. arabiensis and 0% in An. coluzzii.

Conclusions: The prevalent An. arabiensis and An. gambiae mosquitoes found indoors, despite the outdoor cattle population barrier, could be targeted by community-scale utilization of long-lasting insecticide-treated bed nets. Further studies on outdoor mosquito surveillance and bovine blood meal identification are required for the recommendation of suitable complementary vector control measures for the community.

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Published
2022-08-30
How to Cite
1.
Obembe A, Oduola AO, Oyeniyi TA, Olakiigbe AK, Awolola ST (2022) Genetic identity, human blood indices, and sporozoite rates of malaria vectors in Gaa-Bolorunduro, Kwara State, Nigeria. J Infect Dev Ctries 16:1351-1358. doi: 10.3855/jidc.13429
Section
Original Articles