Occurrence and phylogenetic analysis of fowl adenovirus E in broiler flocks from Gaza Strip Palestine
Keywords:Aviadenovirus, Loop-1, HS, IBH, Palestine
Introduction: Inclusion-body hepatitis (IBH) and hydropericardium syndrome (HPS) are highly infectious diseases caused by fowl adenoviruses (FAdVs). IBH and HPS cause major economic losses in poultry production. IBH is caused by multiple FAdV serotypes such as FAdV-11, FAdV8a, and FAdV8b; while HPS is mainly caused by the FAdV-4 serotype. In 2018, we detected FAdVs in West Bank - Palestine for the first time. This study aims to monitor the emergence of new FAdVs in broiler farms in Gaza Strip-Palestine in 2022.
Methodology: The clinical signs, necropsy, and histopathological findings associated with IBH in the suspected birds were recorded. Polymerase chain reaction (PCR) was performed using primers matching the virus-encoded L1 loop of the hexon gene. The sequences of the L1 loop were analyzed and a phylogenetic tree was constructed and compared with the related FAdV field isolates and reference strains from different regions of the world available in GenBank.
Results: The infected broiler displayed FAdVs-induced clinical symptoms and pathological lesions with mortality rates ranging from 20-46%. The L1 loop sequences from the infected flocks were submitted to GenBank with accession numbers ON638995, ON872150, and ON872151. The identified L1 loop gene has high nucleotide homology (96.7-97.9%) to the highly pathogenic FAdV E serotype 8b strain FAdV_isolate_04-53357-122_Canada_2007 (GenBank: EF685489) and 94.5-94.6% to FAdV_10_Belgium_2010 isolate 11-15941 (GenBank: AF339924.1). Furthermore, the phylogenetic analysis indicated that they belong to FAdV-E serotype 8b.
Conclusions: Our study reports the emergence of FAdV-E causing IBH disease in broiler chickens for the first time in Gaza in Palestine.
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Copyright (c) 2023 Dr. Ahmed M. Thabet, Dr. Ibrahim M. Alzuheir, Dr. Adnan F. Fayyad, Dr. Ahmed M. Kheimar, Dr. Nasr H. Jalboush
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