Ear, nose and throat (ENT) involvement in zoonotic diseases: a systematic review

  • Bruno Galletti University Hospital G. Martino, Messina, Italy
  • Valentina K Mannella University Hospital G. Martino, Messina, Italy
  • Roberto Santoro University Hospital G. Martino, Messina, Italy
  • Alfonso J. Rodriguez-Morales Infection and Immunity Research Group, Faculty of Health Sciences, Universidad Tecnológica de Pereira, Pereira, Risaralda
  • Francesco Freni University Hospital G. Martino, Messina, Italy
  • Claudio Galletti University of Messina, Italy
  • Francesco Galletti University Hospital G. Martino, Messina, Italy
  • Antonio Cascio Policlinico G. Martino, Messina, Italy
Keywords: ENT, zoonoses, otorhinolaryngology

Abstract

Introduction: Zoonoses are infections transmitted from animal to man, either directly (through direct contact or contact with animal products) or indirectly (through an intermediate vector, such as an arthropod). The causative agents include bacteria, parasites, viruses, and fungi. The purpose of this review is to make an accurate examination of all zoonotic diseases that can be responsible of ear, nose, and throat (ENT) involvement.

Methodology: A PubMed search was performed combining the terms (otorhinolaryngology OR rhinology OR laryngology OR otology OR mastoiditis OR otitis OR sinusitis OR laryngitis OR rhinitis OR pharyngitis OR epiglottitis OR dysphonia OR ear OR larynx OR nose OR pharynx) with each one of the etiological agents of zoonoses for the period between January 1997 and August 2012 without language restrictions.

Results: A total of 164 articles were selected and examined. Larynx was the most commonly involved ENT organ, followed by oral cavity, pharynx, and neck. Bacteria were the most representative microorganisms involved. Nose and major salivary glands were affected most frequently by protozoa; paranasal sinus, oral cavity, ear, neck, nerves and upper airway by bacteria; and larynx by fungi.

Conclusions: ENT symptoms and signs may be present in many zoonotic diseases, some of which are also present in industrialized countries. Most zoonotic diseases are not commonly encountered by ENT specialists. Appreciation of the possible occurrence of these diseases is important for a correct microbiological approach, which often requires special culture media and diagnostic techniques.

Author Biography

Alfonso J. Rodriguez-Morales, Infection and Immunity Research Group, Faculty of Health Sciences, Universidad Tecnológica de Pereira, Pereira, Risaralda

MD, MSc, DTM&H, FRSTM&H(Lon), FFTM RCPS(Glasg), PhD Candidate.

Advisor on Public Health, Epidemiology, Methodology and Biostatistics.

Researcher in Public Health and Tropical, Parasitic and Infectious Diseases, Infection and Immunity Research Group, Faculty of Health Sciences, Universidad Tecnológica de Pereira, Pereira, Risaralda, Colombia.

Associated Researcher Ad Honorem, Instituto de Investigaciones José Witremundo Torrealba (former Trujillan Center for Parasitological Research), Universidad de Los Andes, Trujillo, Venezuela.
Published
2014-01-15
How to Cite
1.
Galletti B, Mannella VK, Santoro R, Rodriguez-Morales AJ, Freni F, Galletti C, Galletti F, Cascio A (2014) Ear, nose and throat (ENT) involvement in zoonotic diseases: a systematic review. J Infect Dev Ctries 8:017-023. doi: 10.3855/jidc.4206
Section
Reviews