Giardia intestinalis infection associated with malnutrition in children living in northeastern Brazil

  • Beatriz Coronato-Nunes Oswaldo Cruz Foundation, Rio de Janeiro, Brasil
  • Deiviane Aparecida Calegar Oswaldo Cruz Foundation, Rio de Janeiro, Brasil
  • Kerla Joeline Lima Monteiro Oswaldo Cruz Foundation, Rio de Janeiro, Brasil
  • Lauren Hubert-Jaeger Oswaldo Cruz Foundation, Rio de Janeiro, Brasil
  • Elis Regina Chaves Reis Nossa Senhora de Nazaré Municipal Health Office, Nossa Senhora de Nazaré, Brasil
  • Samanta Cristina das Chagas Xavier Oswaldo Cruz Foundation, Rio de Janeiro, Brasil
  • Lindsay Nicole Carpp Fred Hutchinson Cancer Research Center, Seattle, WA, United States
  • Marli Maria Lima Oswaldo Cruz Foundation, Rio de Janeiro, Brasil
  • Márcio Neves Bóia Oswaldo Cruz Foundation, Rio de Janeiro, Brasil
  • Filipe Anibal Carvalho-Costa Oswaldo Cruz Foundation, Rio de Janeiro, Brasil

Abstract

Introduction: The present study aimed to determine the prevalence and factors associated with Giardia intestinalis infection, verifying its impact on the nutritional status of children in northeastern Brazil.


Methodology: A cross-sectional study was conducted to obtain parasitological, sociodemographic, and anthropometric data in two municipalities in the states of Piauí and Ceará, northeastern Brazil.


Results: Prevalence of giardiasis was 55/511 (10.8%). G. intestinalis was more frequent in people living in poverty (30/209 [14.4%], p = 0.041), performing open evacuation (26/173 [15%], p = 0.034), and drinking rainwater stored in cisterns (9/56 [16.1%], p = 0.005). The proportion of stunting and being underweight in children infected with G. intestinalis was significantly higher than that in uninfected children (5/23 [21.7%] vs. 10/179 [5.6%], p = 0.017, OR = 4.69, 95% confidence interval [CI] = 1.44–15.25 and 5/23 [21.7%] vs. 13/179 [7.3%], p = 0.038, OR = 3.54, 95% CI = 1.13–11.09, respectively). Infection with G. intestinalis remained significantly associated with stunting and being underweight after adjustment for poverty, municipality, sex, and age in a logistic regression multivariate model.


Conclusions: In rural areas in northeastern Brazil, giardiasis has acquired great public health importance in the soil-transmitted helminths control era, impacting the nutritional status of children and requiring new approaches to diagnosis and treatment and translational research that could generate applicable solutions at the community level.

Author Biographies

Beatriz Coronato-Nunes, Oswaldo Cruz Foundation, Rio de Janeiro, Brasil

Laboratory of Epidemiology and Molecular Systematics

Deiviane Aparecida Calegar, Oswaldo Cruz Foundation, Rio de Janeiro, Brasil

Coordination of Primary Health Care

Kerla Joeline Lima Monteiro, Oswaldo Cruz Foundation, Rio de Janeiro, Brasil

Laboratory of Epidemiology and Molecular Systematics

Lauren Hubert-Jaeger, Oswaldo Cruz Foundation, Rio de Janeiro, Brasil

Laboratory of Epidemiology and Molecular Systematics

Elis Regina Chaves Reis, Nossa Senhora de Nazaré Municipal Health Office, Nossa Senhora de Nazaré, Brasil

Coordination of Primary Health Care

Samanta Cristina das Chagas Xavier, Oswaldo Cruz Foundation, Rio de Janeiro, Brasil

Laboratory of Trypanosomatid Biology

Marli Maria Lima, Oswaldo Cruz Foundation, Rio de Janeiro, Brasil

Chagas Disease Eco-epidemiology Laboratory

Márcio Neves Bóia, Oswaldo Cruz Foundation, Rio de Janeiro, Brasil

Laboratory of Biology and Parasitology of Wild Reservoir Mammals

Filipe Anibal Carvalho-Costa, Oswaldo Cruz Foundation, Rio de Janeiro, Brasil
Laboratory of Epidemiology and Molecular Systematics; Regional Office
Published
2017-07-31
How to Cite
Coronato-Nunes B, Calegar D, Monteiro K, Hubert-Jaeger L, Reis E, Xavier S, Carpp L, Lima M, Bóia M, Carvalho-Costa F (2017) Giardia intestinalis infection associated with malnutrition in children living in northeastern Brazil. The Journal Of Infection In Developing Countries 11 (07): 563-570. https://doi.org/10.3855/jidc.8410
Section
Original Articles

Keywords

Giardia intestinalis; nutritional status; intestinal parasites; northeastern Brazil; Brazil; poverty