The Human papillomavirus among women living with Human Immunodeficiency Virus in Morocco A prospective cross-sectional study
Introduction: Women infected with human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) have a higher risk of contracting human papillomavirus (HPV) infections and are more prone to develop cervical cancer. The objective of this study was to determine the prevalence of HPV and its association with risk factors among Moroccan women living with HIV/AIDS.
Methodology: We enrolled 251 HIV-infected non-pregnant women in Morocco from February 2013 to September 2016. Sociodemographic, lifestyles, behavioral and clinical data were collected. Polymerase chain reaction followed by sequencing were performed for molecular detection and HPV genotyping in cervical samples, respectively.
Results: Abnormal cervical smears were found in 34/246 patients (13.82%). The overall prevalence of HPV was 74.50%. HPV 58 was the most prevalent (39.29%) followed by HPV 18 (10.71%), HPV 70 (8.93%), HPV 33 (7.14%), HPV 6 (6.25%) and other genotypes (< 3%). Overall, high-risk HPV (HR-HPV) types were present in 75% (84/112) of patients and the prevalence of HR-HPV types in samples with abnormal Pap was higher than in normal Pap (55/83, 66.27% vs. 28/83, 33.33%, p < 0.0001). Univariate analyses showed that none of the socio-demographic and behaviors factors was associated with HPV infection. Moreover, Pap results were not affected by HPV status (p = 0.532). Whereas, CD4 T-cell counts above 200/mm3 at enrolment were apparently not protective to HPV infection. We found a high prevalence of HPV infection and HR-HPV types among HIV-positive women that significantly associated with abnormal Pap.
Conclusion: Our findings suggest a high prevalence of HPV infection with high-risk types was observed among HIV-positive women warrant to implement a regular screening by Pap smear.
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